Betraying Muslims is not enough

Ottomans disrupted the

Mamluk’s support of Andalusia

Andalusia fell to the hands of the Spanish, and the last falling city was Granada. The Muslims in Andalusia yelled many missions for help, coming from Andalusia, which became the deadliest for Muslims. The falling into the abyss of inspection became a real fact, however, many of them did not respond to such yelling. 

Many claim that the Ottoman Empire was an Islamic Jihad state, working for raising the flag of Allah and protecting Muslims. Many thought that Ottoman Empire is a state of conquests. But it was working to expand its empire on the people’s bodies and skulls, demonstrating tyranny and domination.

Ottomans preferred their benefit in the European Ocean over the response to the missions of the Andalusians.

The Ottomans were busy in their war against the Mamluk, and made a deal with the French against the Spanish in order to control Algeria, for reasons related to the Turkish Sultanate. For that reasons, they sent only Cub to some countries.

The plight of Al Andalus’ Muslims is a result of internal and external conspiracies. Some sources suggested that the mulūk al- awā if,”kings of the territorial divisions” or “party kings” are reasons for such loss and Muslims’ status. However, this does not exonerate the state as it is claimed to be the protector of Muslims’ homes. 

The painful cries yelling for help and assistance increased, they became in dire straits, especially after two rebellions, which are Rebellion of Albayzín and Rebellion of the Alpujarras. This resulted in the displacement of large numbers of Moriscos to outside of Andalusia. Much more serious is starting to Christianize people who were forced to stay in the country under the law issued in 1502 AD. This hard Suffering extended from 1499 to 1501AD.

In this time, there were many urgent missions appeared in the Islamic countries as Mamluk State and the state of the Ottoman State of Granada sultans. They did not ignore the Recourse to the Islamic Maghreb by virtue of the convergence and the rapid periods. Despite the overlapping of events, this was the first direction.

Turn Andalusians went towards the Islamic Maghreb as it is the closest country to them. It is also a base of Islamic conquests at that time. But political circumstances prevented achieving that as a result of the large number of internal conflicts and dissension. Thus, the status is almost Common. As an Andalusian historian anonymous says: “We sent asking our Muslim brothers of Morocco’s people for help, but nobody answers. There is nothing wrong with supporting and helping us as our enemy built and lived. This enemy get stronger and we get weaker, and it had support from his country, and nobody supported us …. ” At that time, Crying out did not find echoes because of the complicated events happening in Morocco. This cannot be considered as ignorance or default as the events are common despite the different source.

The Andalusian distress messages were repeatedly forwarded to the Muslim rulers in the form of missions and delegations, asking for prompt help. Consequently, the Mamluk Sultan Jaqmaq in Egypt sought to address the Ottoman Sultan Murad. However, Murad apologized for providing assistance because of the distance. He said he had forces are on land and not on sea. Despite the strength of the Ottoman Empire at the time, but their sultans’ preoccupation in achieving their interests was a Handicap.

The Ottomans did not care about supporting Andalusia Muslims and save them from the clutches of the Crusaders. The author of “Naf al- īb min ghu n Andalusia al-ra īb wa-dhikr waziriha Lisān al-Dīn ibn al-Kha īb” stated that no support came from land nor from overseas as he stated: “… They despaired to find any support or help from land and sea … the enemy was able to capture the prisoners, and every place had been under the Christians’ domination”.

Ottomans wanted to make use of the situation to the rescue of Andalusia, to have Muslims’ appreciation. In 1477 AD, the people of Granada sent a mission to the Ottoman Empire before eleven years of the final fall in the reign of Sultan Muhammed II, known as Al Fateh. This mission pleaded the Sultan to intervene to save them, but they found him preoccupied with holding alliances with the Pope SIXT IV, Venice, the rulers of Naples, Hungary, Transylvania and the Knights of St. John in Rhodes Island. The Worse is that Al-Fateh held alliances with a number of Spanish leaders, even though he knew their deep animosity, but The Empire’s interest requires to maintain his domain over Constantinople after conquering it.

"Al-Fateh" went to Rome ignoring the cries of the Muslims of Andalusia.

The Andalusians did not despair of repeatedly asking Ottomans’ help. During Sultan Bayezid II’s reign, before five years of the fall of Granada, a pitiful mission was sent describing the suffering that resulted in the fall of Islam and everyone who tries to stick to it. But the state having fleet and army in land and on sea, has the same successive miserable reactions. Bayezid acted like his father as he sent only Messages to the Pope to intervene and contact with Castile kings. 

What a Miserable role for a Sultan having power and authority. As for the heroic adventures of the Ottoman Sultan which was mentioned and published in Haji Khalifa’s books, including his book entitled: “ Taqweem Al-Tawareekh-History Calender”, It says that “The Sultan assigned Kamal Rice to lead a fleet to save Andalusia Muslims and he conducted painful attacks towards the Spanish shores in 1490 AD.” This speech has been refuted by the Turkish historian, Zhiya Pasha, based on the argument and factual reasoning. He documented these events and said that the Ottoman fleet did not conduct such attacks for two reasons: During this historical period, The Portuguese fleet was a powerful fleet and it camped in the vicinity of Gibraltar, and all the southern sides. In addition, the fleet should pass by bases along the Egyptian and Tunisian coasts, and those coasts were in severe hostility with the Turks.
The Andalusian missions Failed at the Ottoman court, so they went towards Mamluks of Egypt, Sultan Qansuh Al-Ghuri. They explained to him their circumstances and how they were forced to abandon the religion, so, Al-Ghuri did not hesitate to send a delegation to the rulers kings. Using the same previous bargains, he bargained them to force Egyptian Christians be Muslims while they were coerced. The two kings, Ferdinand and Isabella, responded differently from their response to the Ottomans’ bargains. They confirmed to Al-Ghuri their respect to the agreements concluded between them and the Muslims of Andalusia. Moreover, a delegation was sent to Egypt Headed by the President of the Granada Cathedral where they told him that Moriscos are in good condition, and well treated, and that they have the same rights and duties of the Spanish. That action was not conducted by sultans of Al-Othman. Comparing to Mamluk, they did not consider or care.

During the Ottoman silence, Qansuh Al-Ghuri adopted the Andalusian matter. Then he was preoccupied with his conflicts with Ottomans. During this Period, Salim I directed first strikes near the borders of Al Mamlik, It was better more important that the Ottoman army headed towards his Andalusia. However, the Ottoman policy in Europe was interested with its alliances with some countries. Therefore, their European winnings were more important than saving Andalusia. The worst thing is that they disrupted Mamluks by abolishing their state.

1) Ahmed Mohammed al-Maqqari (Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Maqqarī al-Tilmisānī): Nafh al-țīb min ghușn Andalusia al-rațīb wa-dhikr waziriha Lisān al-Dīn ibn al-Khațīb, verified by Maryem Taweel et al., (Dar Al Kutub Al Ilmyah, Beirut, 1971AD). 

2) SaharAlSayedSalem:TherelationshipofMamlukEgyptwithGranadabefore and after its fall (Elakat Mesr Al Mamlokyah BeGhernada Qubayel wa Baad Sukoteha.) A Published Research (World Conference for Studies of Moroks Andalusian regarding the 500 anniversary of the fall of Granada, ZAGHOUAN 1993).

3) Shawki Atallah Al-Gamal : Muhammad and his struggle against the Spanish and Portugal 1051 AH/1641 AD, A published research, (Egyptian Historical Journal, Vol. 1976 ,23).

4) Abdul-Jalilal-Tamimi:FromMuslimsofGranadatoSultanSuleimanAlQanoni, (Moroccan Historical Journal, No. 3, Tunisia, 1975AD).

5) Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Iyas: [Flowers in the Chronicles of the Ages] “Badai Alzuhur Fi Wakayi Alduhur”, Verified by Mohammed Mustafa, (Cairo, d. N, d. T., 1984AD).

6) Muhammed Razzouk: Andalusians and their migrations to Morocco during 17-16th centuries, (Publisher: Africa Al Sharaq, Al Dar Al Baydaa, 1998AD).

7) Mohamed Farid Bek Tareekh Al Dawlah Al-Alyah, verified by Ihsan Haqi, (Dar Al-Nafaes, Beirut, 1983AD).