Fake alliances and contradictory agreements
The Ottoman Empire had reached a stage of great disintegration, weakness, and mismanagement to the point that its governors and agents made contradictory commitments and agreements to create friendly relations through which money and weapons would be passed against Ibn Saud (King Abdulaziz).
Indeed, the Ottoman Empire sent some supplies to Ibn Al-Rasheed under one of the agreements. When the Sultan of Najd knew the agreement between them, and despite his attempt in Al-Subayhiya to make peace, war broke out in the Arabian Peninsula in 1914 AD, in which King Abdulaziz Al Saud was the best in terms of foresight and the one with the most correct opinion. He had written to various parties, such as Sharif Hussein, Ibn Rasheed, and the Sheikh of Kuwait, and called them to hold an Arab meeting to determine the situation of the Arabs towards international turmoil and to have the same opinion to defend the rights if they were attacked. Despite that, they did not pay any attention to that vision and foresight towards the near reality, and they did not pay any attention to his call. Rather, each of them made different alliances with other parties.
At the same time, delegations went to King Abdulaziz, including the British representative, Shakespeare, and a delegation from the Turks led by Shukri Al-Alusi. He honored them and then they left in a classy manner, which is an indication of his good character (may Allah have mercy on him). He chose to keep his country neutral and not betray any of the Arabs. Among the things he strongly rejected was Sir Percy’s offer to take over the Islamic caliphate, but he rejected it outright. This sparked a strong reaction among the Ottomans when they realized that attention was directed to King Abdulaziz Al Saud and the possibility of him having authority over Muslims, not just Arabs. If his policy was the same as the policy pursued by the Ottoman Empire against the Arabs and Muslims, he would have accepted those offers.
The approach of the successive Ottoman governments was to oppress the Arabs in the Arabian Peninsula, especially in the Hijaz, which still owes them obedience. However, the entry of the Ottoman Empire into the First World War on the side of Germany and its involvement in many wars made the citizens bear additional taxes that moved their desires towards independence. As a result, the ruler of Mecca made an alliance with England to help him get rid of the Turks, the allies of their German enemies, and if his alliance was with Ibn Saud, this would have guaranteed him that the Turks would not betray him.
In any case, the Ottoman government did not accept anything but obedience from its weak Arab subjects. For example, it ordered Sharif Hussein to issue a declaration of holy jihad in the Islamic countries against the Allied countries and urged him to send the mujahideen that he had prepared for the Suez and Sinai wars. The Sharif sent a telegram to the Grand Vizier Anwar Pasha in 1915 AD, in which he revealed his intention to declare jihad and to send mujahideen under three conditions, which are: A general amnesty for Arab political suspects, granting Syria and Iraq a decentralized administration, and making the rule of Mecca hereditary, so that his sons would take over after him. If the government accepts, he pledges to mobilize the Mujahideen from the Arab tribes under the leadership of his sons in Iraq and Palestine. If the government does not accept, do not expect anything from him but to pray for it to win. He was challenging the Turks, and they punished him for it.
The sultans of the Othman family dominated and betrayed the Arabs for their own interests, in the name of the caliphate, which never preceded the name of any of their sultans. The Arabian Peninsula was not their actual interest in providing the minimum human needs of security and a decent life for its inhabitants. This was with the exception of the country of the Two Holy Mosques, which the Ottoman Empire targeted to gain religious legitimacy and economic benefits from the ports of the Arabian Seas by securing their trade and managing their wars with competing powers. In the light of these events, Ibn Saud continued his victories and left those who chose fake and contradictory agreements to face their fate.