Jamal Pasha

Architect of "death marches"

Jamal Pasha was born in 1872 in Istanbul, and joined the War Academy and graduated in 1895. He was more of a politician than a man of war, and he rose to many leadership and war positions, until he became governor of Baghdad in 1911. He participated in the Balkan War and then returned due to his illness, and after the 1913 coup in which he participated, he assumed the position of the military governor of Istanbul, then the Ministry of Works, and when the First World War broke out in 1914, he was appointed Minister of the Navy, and became commander of the Fourth Army in the Levant and Egypt, and a governor with absolute authority over Syria, Palestine, and Lebanon until 1917, taking Damascus as his headquarters.

Enjoy hanging the gallows of the free Arabs.

He deceived the Arabs at the beginning of his arrival in Levant, by talking about reviving Arab heritage, the Arabic language and Arab glory, but !! All his works showed his hostility to the Arab idea and his fear of it, which prompted him to spread his spies and follow the news of the men of the Arab cultural movement.
Turkification of the Arab elements was the most prominent policy of Jamal Pasha, which the Arab liberals resisted, and went beyond the Turkification to abuse the Arabs and kill their leaders, until he became obsessed with executions, as if sadism had fallen on his heart. He pursued Arab intellectuals and nationalists in the Levant, and set the gallows for them in Beirut and Damascus.
It was terrorism and oppression of its principles, even feared the people when they saw the morning of August 1915 , 21 bodies were outstanding, and felt Jamal Pasha comfortable for this fear, and faster to avoid a wave of discontent overwhelming that befell those who did not believe that the executed were really traitors “, they were (death marches ), Which included children, women, and the elderly, ending with genocide and violations in areas under his control, such as Deir Ezzor in the Levant.
The 1916 has revealed his hatred of the Arab Thought and fields and figures despite calling him to unite to promote the heritage of the Arab revival when it unjustly killed by order Jamal Pasha , a number of elite writers and people of the literature of the Christians and Muslims, were executed (21) Arab figures, including members of the Ottoman Senate Without trial, and headed by Abd al-Karim al-Khalil and Muhammad, Mahmoud al-Mahmasani ، Nur al-Din al-Qadi ،, Prince Omar al-Jazairi, grandson of Emir Abdelkader al-Jazaery, writer Rushdi al-Shamaa and poet writer Shafiq Bey Muayad al-Azm, poet Rafiq Rizk Salloum ،, thinker and journalist Abd al-Hamid al-Zahrawi.
The Levant did not stop the insatiable tyranny of the unbridled serial killer Jamal Pasha, so he threatened the Arabian Peninsula to penetrate Najd with two columns of his army, and King Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman Al Saud – may God have mercy on him – responded to him with his literature and dream: “We will shorten the path for you, God willing.”
The crimes of the Minister of the Navy increased when he obtained extensive additional powers, committing crimes against humanity, confiscating crops, imposing subsidies to the army in the name of war costs, and restricting people’s livelihoods . Although the Lebanese suffered from an apparent shortage of foodstuffs at the beginning of 1915 due to the naval blockade imposed on them and the locust attacks, Jamal Pasha ignored the suffering of the people, so he confiscated their crops to feed his soldiers, thus exacerbating the suffering of the Lebanese and the emergence of a famine that killed about 200 thousand Lebanese Equivalent to half of the population.
Exceeded the beauty of crimes to the forced displacement of Arab soldiers, and take them to distant areas, resulting in increased sense of Arabs deep injustice, massed beauty of Arab nationals by force soldiers to mount their multiple attacks on the Sinai Peninsula, trying to grab it, but lost in all the attacks, and after this Defeats and utter failure, he was summoned to Istanbul and remained there until the time came for his escape from Turkey.

The "curses" buried him in 1922.

And when the Turks were defeated in the First World War, Jamal Pasha resigned from the ministry, then he, Talat and Anwar fled on board a ship towards German lands, and from Berlin he moved to Switzerland, and Jamal Pasha later went to Russia, in which the Bolshevik revolution and the domination of the communists, after his arrival in Germany. On judgment.
The trial of Jamal Pasha took place in absentia, as he was accused of participating in the genocide of the Armenians, and the revenge against the Turkish leaders responsible for the massacre continued to inflame the hearts of the Armenians ،, so they were taking revenge on the Turkish criminals whenever the opportunity arises. On July 1922 ,21, in the Georgian capital Tbilisi, Jamal Pasha fell with bullets on Hand of three Armenians, and so was his end, cursed.

(1) Raghda Muhammad Adeeb Zeidan, Issues of Reform and Renaissance among the Faithful of Religion Al-Khatib, (Beirut: A master’s thesis from the Imam Al-Ouzai College of Beirut in Islamic Studies, discussed on 25 Dhu al-Qi’dah 1427 AH corresponding to 2006/16/12 AD).

(2) Taha Abdel Nasser Ramadan, “On the Day of the Murder of the Turkish Official Claimant for the Extermination of 1.5 Million Armenians”, (Tunisia, www.alarabiya.net. Published on: April ,05 10:43 :2019 AM GST last update: May 11:50 :2020 ,20 AM GST).

(3) The Diary of Jamal Pasha Al-Saffah, translated: Ali Shukry (Beirut: Arab House of Encyclopedias, 2004).

(4) Henry Morgenthau, Memoirs of the American Ambassador in Astana, translated by Fouad Sarouf, (Egypt: Mokattam Printing shop, 1913).