When interests conflict

With the arrival of Imam Faisal bin Turki in Riyadh, the people pledged allegiance to him and the actions of reform started quickly. One of those actions was that he sent to all the towns of Najd a lengthy and valuable advice that was read in all mosques, urging the people to do good deeds and leave what angers Allah Almighty, and it had a profound impact on their souls.

If this indicates something, it indicates the extent of the deterioration of the situation due to the events and the war campaigns directed by the order of the supreme state, which worked to spread the diaspora and problems. Once the imam returned for the second time, stability returned.

On the other hand, in 1256 AH / 1840 AD, severe tension appeared in the relations between the Ottoman Empire and its governor over Egypt, Muhammad Ali Pasha. As a result, the Treaty of London was signed between England, Russia, Prussia and Austria on one side, and Turkey on the other. Its result was the alliance against the Pasha to force him to return to the borders of Egypt for his expansion against the possessions of the Ottoman Empire.

A decision was also taken to prepare a force to deter Muhammad Ali if he did not comply with the terms of the Treaty. The consuls were informed of what the treaty contained. They also offered Muhammad Ali the rule of Egypt for him and his heirs, and the rule of Acre throughout his life. They gave him ten days to decide, but the Pasha’s brutal fighting personality led him to challenge the Turkish state, which decided to get rid of him and win the great powers around it on its side.

On the other hand, the Pasha’s decision was to reject the treaty. He decided to fight to death. He did not pay attention to the extent of the seriousness of the matter to his ambition, which made him exterminate peoples and countries in order to achieve it. At that time, the consuls told him that he had no right to rule Acre. Here, we can point out an important piece of information, which is that the Ottoman Empire sold everything that could be sold in order to maintain its own entity.


The Ottoman Empire did not hesitate in its war against the Pasha, although it was not a military war, but a war of exploitation of religion and fatwas from the Sheikh of Islam in Astana. Before the expiration of another grace period, a fatwa was issued to overthrow the rule of Muhammad Ali Pasha in the Levant. This fatwa was read in all the mosques of Istanbul, while Muhammad Ali responded to the consuls in a manner that indicates an unparalleled mood. He announced that the matter of Egypt was decided from the first period. He sent to the country to which he belongs in order to discuss the matter of the Levant, which he considers a secondary matter, and that he regrets his mistreatment of countries, and asks them for justice. Muhammad Ali Pasha asks for justice!!

Muhammad Ali’s great surprise was when military forces led by Admiral Esteeford approached him, and an Ottoman campaign coming from Cyprus joined them and launched their bombs on Beirut. After that, Suleiman Pasha was asked to surrender, but he told them that they would not leave it unless it was destroyed, and there were devastating events that only peoples were affected by. After all that, an Ottoman firman was issued against Muhammad Ali to abide by what was stated in it, and the Sultanate would be kind to him by accepting his apology, provided that the Egyptian army must be dissolved, and only limited numbers could be left.

It was stated in his apology that the eldest of his family would inherit the throne of Egypt after him, and the most important condition was that he set a fixed annual amount to be paid to the Sultan, and that he had the right to promote his army officers.

That punishment for Muhammad Ali was nothing but a downgrading of his position and his power as a military ruler, despite all that he did to serve the interests of the supreme state with the mercenaries who turned against him. His role was ignored by the state and that was the end of the state as well.