between Three Pashas
The alliances may be aimed at changing the balance of power in favor of public interests, and party alliances seeking power are not an easy partnership; because they are required to make concessions or procedures in order to obtain and get high ranks. Indeed, it can be put into consideration in cases that are similar in terms of form and content of conditions and events that are likely to gather them, as if they allied to work on the harshest and most heinous dealings against humanity, among of them:
Djemal Pasha was born in 1290 AH / 1873 AD, and was assassinated in 1341 AH / 1922 AD. He was the Minister of the Ottoman Interior, and was appointed as the Governor of Syria and the Levant in general in 1334 AH / 1915 AD. In addition, He was always stirring up nationalism, hating the Arabs and showing intentions to take revenge on them, accordingly, when he became in authority, he excluded them from administrative positions. He also led the Ottoman army against Suez to eliminate the British there, but he was distracted from the real aim and took care of empowering himself, strengthening his power, ruled with an iron hand, and depended on a policy of oppression.
The Ottoman campaign that he led against Egypt suffered a heavy loss and thousands of killings. Then, he returned to the Levant and became more violent after his defeat and utter failure, working against the Arab military and civilians in the Levant, so he replaced them with Turkish soldiers, dismissed and displaced their officers to remote areas. In addition, he carried out void martial death sentences, arrested and tortured national leaders and severely punished the prominent among them as well as intellectuals. Therefore, he was called the Assassin for running unfair and unjust trials, and despite pleas to stop the sentences and release innocents, he executed them between Lebanon and Syria in stages on multiple charges, including attempting to separate from the state. Next, he was subject to assassination attempts, captured, and tortured more than once, but he survived, however, he was assassinated in Tbilisi by an Armenian man, for he was one of those who planned to deport Armenians in an operation known as the “Nemesis” which means the punishment.
Talaat Pasha was born in 1291 AH / 1874 AD and was assassinated in (1340 AH / 1921 AD) in Berlin by the only survivor of his Armenian family. He was born in Edirne province, which is located in Bulgarian territory, and belongs to a pariah Bulgarian family (Pomaks), which is a Muslim minority in northern Macedonia. He was also one of the Romani groups in the Ottoman Empire, and studied until he was appointed in the Ministry of the Interior then got the position of Grand Vizier. In fact, he had a special military policy, including taking the most extreme measures against minorities in the country, including the Armenians, for he was afraid that they would declare their state and wrote this in his diaries explaining the reasons for their torture and starvation, as it is one of his achievements that he worked to exterminate and deport Armenians out of the empire. Moreover, he was among those who established Turkish nationalism to unite peoples through cultural and ethnic-racial-linguistic norms.
The book ” Killing Orders: Talat Pasha’s Telegrams and the Armenian Genocide”, in which the author testifies, is the memoirs of the Ottoman official Naim Effendi, the first secretary in the Logistics Directorate in Aleppo, included the original Talaat Pasha telegrams related to the orders to displace and exterminate Armenians, insisting on that in his own diary. Anwar Pasha was born in Istanbul in (1299 AH / 1881 AD). He joined the War College and graduated as an officer in the Thessaloniki Corps, assumed the power of the Tunisian city of Monastir, and assumed the Ministry of War.
One of his historical contributions, that the Ottoman Empire declared jihad!!! – But against whom? – After it joined Germany in the World War I, and after the latter guaranteed its territorial integrity and sovereignty, the war waged – I mean their jihad – which was led by the state against the Dardanelles – Suez – Asir Yemen – Libya – and Iran. Thus, Anwar Pasha’s decision of war or jihad as described was an unforgivable mistake that cost the empire to reach its end. To illustrate, he turned towards Russia, the Caucasus and Iran, facing the Russians with an army of 700,000 soldiers. Consequently, the Ottomans were defeated; where 243,000 killed, 400,000 wounded, 466,000 died out of epidemics and diseases and 200,000 were captured.
The worst in its biography was the issuance of the War Costs Law in which Arabs were obliged to compulsory conscription, especially from Palestine and the Levant in general, and to provide full support to the Ottoman and German army by legitimate means to ensure sympathy and so on. As a result, 250,000 were killed, 50,000 wounded, and 500 were executed who were Arabs who refused to pay the Ottoman conscription in favor of Germany.
After the state’s defeat was inevitable, he decided to flee in (1336 AH / 1918 AD), and was killed in (1341 AH / 1922 AD) in Bukhara.
Talaat Pasha mentioned in his memoirs that he told Djamal Pasha: If we spent all the loans we took to cover your evils and sins, they would not suffice.
Three pashas shared characteristics and military actions that reflect diversity in oppression Arabs and other peoples; Islamic and minorities.
As if it was a bloody alliance between vital ministries that were taken over by Three Pashas…