It Had Commenced Full-fledged ... then Ended as a Mock and Sardonic
whose are not Caliphs
Caliphate has two dimensions: Religious and Secular; should they have been met, it would take place. However, if such dimensions have been split, it would be demolished.
Definition of Caliphate:
Legitimately, the Caliphate (Arabic:خِلافَة ِkhil fah) is known as the government that achieves the policy and management of the group in accordance with Islamic law and the application of the provisions of Islam. Therefore, Amani Saleh has referred to Al-Mawardi definition regarding the Caliphate concept as the succession of prophecy in guarding religion and managing the world policy. In the same context, Ibn Khaldun has defined Caliphate as it is the succession of the Shar’a holder in guarding religion, managing the world policy, and obliging all to apply Shara’ in their otherworldly and worldly interests. Amani Saleh has considered that ibn Khaldun’s concept was wiser and more controlled.
The Caliphate in Sunnis and Shiites:
Between Arabs and Persians, its conception is governed by denominational differences.
Transforming to The Government:
1. Abul Ala Maududi, Alkhlafah Walmlk, translated by Ahmad Idris (Kuwait: Dar Al-Qalam, 1978).
2. Ahmad Al-Maqrizi, Suluk li-Ma’rifat Duwal al-Muluk, edited by: Muhammad Atta (Beirut: Dar Al-Kutub Al-Ilmiyya,
3. Ahmad bin Ismail Al-Bukhari, Al-Jami al-Sahih, Book of what is hated in being keen to have the authority of ruling
(7149) (Beirut: Dar Ibn Katheer, 2002).
4. Amani Saleh, alshra’iah bin fkh alkhlafah alislamiah wwaka’ha (Cairo: The International Institute for Islamic
Thomas Arnold, The Caliphate, translated by: Muhammad Al-Azzawi (Beirut: Dar Al-Warraq, 2016).
5. Jalal Al-Din Al-Suyuti, The History of the Caliphs (Beirut: Dar Ibn Hazm, 2003).
6. Abdul Razzaq Al-Sanhouri, Fkh Alkhlafah Wttourha ltsbh A’sbah A’mm shrkiah, edited by: Tawfiq Al-Shawi and
Nadia Al-Sanhouri, 4th Edition (Beirut: The Resala Foundation, 2000).
7. Ali Al-Mawardi, Ala’hkam Alsltaniah Waloulayat Aldiniah, edited by Ahmad Al-Baghdadi (Kuwait: Dar Ibn
Ali Al-Wardi, Drasah fi Sousyouloujya Alislam, 2nd Edition (Beirut: Dar Al-Warraq, 2019).
8. Muhammad Al-Shari, The Caliphate in the Islamic Constitution, edited by: Muhammad Al-Samawi (Beirut: Dar
9. Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh Alrsl Walmlouk, edited by: Muhammad Abu al-Fadl, Edition 2 (Cairo: Dar
10. Muslim Ibn Al-Hajjaj, Sahih Muslim, Book of forbidding to request for ruling and being keen on it (1733) (Riyadh:
Dar Taibah, 2006).