Hurufiers are intimate companions of "The Conqueror"

Hurufiers are intimate companions

of "The Conqueror"

by harboring their founder, "Tabrizi"

The profound sacerdotalism state in Anatolia represented a widely open door for interpretation in Ottoman culture, which enabled philosophical ideas – which are in conflict with the Sunni doctrine – to spread with their most extreme visions and distant from it, with interpretations that have pagan, Magus, Greek, Indian, Christian, Sabian perspectives; and atheistic ideas, all of which worked to entice the commoner of the Turks in order to limit the religious interpretations to the Sufi clerics, considering that the inside of the frequent Qur’an meanings is full of secrets that only the infallible imams can see, and they are the only ones who are able to interpret them. This what made Sufism in the Ottoman Empire immersed in the mystical ideas.
The focus of Hurufism on verbal worship made it limit man’s communication with Allah to verbal pronunciation only, and it believed that knowledge of words represented the fact of beings. Consequently, the word is preceded over the meaning, and the verbal expressions are explained through the Arabic letters, which are 28 and the Persian letters, which are 32, and the connection between the two languages is in the letter (lam alif- لا), which combines the extra Persian letters in Arabic. Accordingly, Persian has become an interpreter of the Arabic language, and that becomes more special in Persian as it represents the interpretative depth of the Holy Qur’an, its letters and verbal meanings, as well as the interpreter – also – of the outward and inward aspects of the world. Therefore, Moses, peace be upon him, has significance in the Hurufi thought, because as he is the one to whom Allah spoke directly, and Muhammad because he was sent by the comprehensive in meaning, thus, Ali bin Abi Talib (may Allah be pleased with him) became the speaker of Allah’s words according to their belief.

They restricted their communication with Allah verbally.

The impact of Hurufism in Anatolia began since the era of the Seljuks of Rum, and extended thereafter through the various eras of the history of the Ottoman Empire. A group of Turkish authors pointed out in the book: (The Ottoman Empire, History and Civilization) that Anatolia was always influenced by what was imported to it such as the doctorine of the religious currents emanating from Iran. These historians assert that the influence of Hurufism was crystal clear and thriving on the Sufi orders, on top of which is the Bektashiyya; the most important because it had unlimited support from the sultans of the Ottoman Empire, where the Hurufi thought was crystallized in its visions and applications, and so on, it was inspired by the special and hidden meanings of the letters, and mixed with a Pantheism philosophy. Hurufiers found a safe haven and refuge in Anatolia and the Rumeli regions through their penetration into the center of the Turkish societies, and they were affected firstly by the Qalandariyya, and then by other mystical orders.

Bektashi Order

The Bektashi Order is considered one of the most important Sufi orders in the Ottoman Empire because of its official effect on it, especially as it was the patron of the Janissary army, as the Janissaries were associated with the Bektashiyya and its doctorine, so that their camps were filled with the guiding Sheikhs of the Bektashi orders. Moreover, it was known in Ottoman history that the Janissary army was under the control of The Bektashiyya and its directives, influenced and obeyed it more than they obeyed the Ottoman sultans, accordingly, the sultans harmonized with the Bektasiyya, considering the support it represented among the ranks of the Janissaries. This order was founded by Haji Bektash, who lived during the second half of the thirteenth century AD in Anatolia.

Khalil Inalcik, History of the Ottoman Empire (Beirut: Dar Al-Madar Al-Islami, 2002).

The Sufi philosophy of pantheism

It is known as federalism, and the philosophy of pantheism is summarized in saying that Allah and nature are one reality, and Allah is the true existence, and they depict Allah with the creatures around them, while all that is material in creatures is nothing but an expression to the existence of Allah, otherwise materialities have no existence by itself. Among the most prominent people who believe in it and revived it in Islamic history are Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi, Ibn Al-Farid, and others who were influenced by Neoplatonist philosophy and the philosophy of the Stoics. Sunni scholars considered them as heretics, and those who believe in their words are disbelievers.

Ahmad Al-Qusayr, The Sufism's Doctrine of the Hidden Pantheism (Riyadh: Al-Rashed Library, 2003).


It is considered one of the orders of Khorasani origin, and it spread after it was founded by Jamal Al-Din Al-Sawi in 463 AH / 1070 AD, and reached Iraq, Syria, Egypt, India and Anatolia, where it faced a violent attack by the Sunni Sufi orders because of its strange and suspicious rituals, as well as what The Qalandarians used to follow; such as disgusting pornography. Consequently, they aspired to celibacy, poverty and begging, as they roamed the Anatolian cities in their strange costumes, shaved heads with their mustaches and eyebrows, carrying their own flags while beating the drums, and the most prominent things that made Anatolian society detest them directly were that they were deliberately calling to rebel against social and moral systems.

Muhammad Cobrieli, The rise of the Ottoman Empire, translated by Ahmad Al-Saeed (Cairo: Dar Al-Kateb Al-Arabi, 1967).

The most prominent connection between al-Haroufiyya and the sultans of the Ottoman Empire was during the reign of Muhammad al-Fatih, as it was stated in the book “Al-Shaqaq al-Naamaniyya”:
“Some of the followers of Fadlallah Tabrizi, head of the misguided al-Haroufiyya sect, received the Sultan Muhammad Khan’s service. Tabrizi showcased some of his elegant acquaintances until the Sultan, Muhammad Khan, and his family, along with his followers tended to him and provided him with a place to live in Dar Al-Sa’ada. The minister, Mahmoud Pasha, was so greatly distressed over this group that he became increasingly overwhelmed, but he was unable to say a word about them for fear of the Sultan.”
Thus, the Haroufis reached Al-Fatih Palace, and he brought them closer to it, among them Othman Baba Al-Qalandari, who had a very strong connection with the influential people in the palace and Al-Fatih at their head. Al-Qalandari was one of the sheikhs of the Qalandari method. This explains for us the strong link between Qalandariyya and the Haroufiyya, which is why Ihsanoglu and others say: “In sum, when we search for the Haroufi group, we must search for them under the description of Qalandari and Bektashiyya, and not under the characteristic of Haroufiyya alone in the fifteenth century and beyond.”
In fact, such words are considered a source confirmation through the mouths of Turkish historians on the extent of the connection of Haroufiyya with Qalandariya and the Bektashiyya, and is supported by the evidence they have provided. Therefore, it seems shocking and exhausting for those who believe in Sunni sectarianism, which the Ottoman Empire had claimed to do.
If the Turks themselves did not acknowledge the esoteric methodology of Haroufiyya and its ideas related to the official methods of the Ottoman Empire, we would have said that their combined ignorance of the principles of the Sharia and the correct beliefs led them to stick to believe in esoteric ideas, but various contemporaries alerted the sultans of the danger of Haroufiyya and its sister sects; however, some aspects of the beliefs of this deviant group found acceptance among some of the sultans and served their policies, so they supported it in various manners.
Although a number of the Haroufis were expelled and killed, they succeeded in having an official representation according to the fact that they were Haroufis before they were intrusive in the official methods. The Haroufis had official representation in Adrianople, as well as having a Persian envoy in the court of the Sultan, in the year 848 AH / 1444 CE and during the first period of the rule of Al-Fateh. And this representation continued until the community of Edirne objected to it under the pretext that Haroufiyya had Christian roots, but there was concern that a crusade would be launched on Adrianople, the Ottoman capital before Istanbul was deemed capital, with their assistance. Then, the Ottoman Palace was silent about what the Ottoman people did when they burned their Persian envoy and cut off the tongues of his followers in their capital. It is said that the number of Haroufis is estimated to be 2,007, and the Ottoman Empire did not hold anything against them, until the Haroufis were accused of masterminding the assassination of Sultan Bayezid II.
And by another admission by the Turkish historian Shemshergul, according to which Muhammed Al-Fateh had great respect for the senior Sufis, and spent long time in their deliberations, and what was mentioned about him, which draws a very big question mark around him, that:
“He had great esteem and great reverence for the Sufis, the people of the esoteric and the saints, and he was quick to serve them, provide them with comfort, and always visit them to be blessed with their righteous supplications.”
If we skipped over his love of Sufism and his constant seeking of blessings from the “righteous people,” the appreciation of Muhammad Al-Fateh and his reverence for the people of esoteric and the saints constitute the biggest question mark about his suspicious relationship with Haroufiyya.
Just as Sultan Al-Fateh had a suspicious relationship with Haroufiyya, Sultan Salim Al-Awwal came after him and he had an even more suspicious relationship with Haroufiyya, according to what was mentioned by Evliya Çelebi (born 1020 AH / 1611 AD). Çelebi confirmed that Salim Al-Awwal had become attached to the knowledge of Al-Jafr, who had connections to the Haroufiyya. It is said that he asked Sheikh Nasser Al-Tarsusi whether it would be easy for him to conquer Egypt, and he told him that Ali bin Abi Talib (may Allah be pleased with him) – as he claims – said: “Salim Al Othman must conquer the Romans and Persians and then conquer the Arabian Peninsula.” He also informed him that the Noble Qur’an referred to Salim and his conquest with a repeated narration according to the author Çelebi’s belief, including the Almighty’s saying: {There they found a servant of Ours, to whom We had mercy from Us and enlightened with knowledge of Our Own.} (Al-Kahf: 65) that it refers in symbols to Salim Al-Awwal, and the Almighty said: {Surely, following the heavenly Record, We decreed in the Scriptures: “My righteous servants shall inherit the land.} (Al-Anbiya ‘: 105). He indicated that the word (walaqad) which is translated to “surely” is equal to: 140, which is the number of words as referring to it, and the word (dhikr), which is translated to “heavenly Record” is equal to: 920, and the sentence (min ba’d al-dhikr) which is translated to “following the heavenly Record” means: that is, after 900, you will be the conqueror of Egypt, and he mentioned at the end of his interpretation that God considered Salim one of his righteous servants. Salim stuck to these beliefs so much, so that he then proceeded to ask him how long he would maintain his sultanate, but Tarsusi argued that this was knowledge of the unseen; he said that while he interpreted the verses with his tafsir, that is not based upon a scientific dimension. But Evliya Çelebi did not hesitate to claim that the word (wajda) which means “they found” equals the number eight, meaning that Salim’s conquest of Egypt, his return to Istanbul, and the duration of his reign would last for eight years.
Sultan Salim is considered one of the most famous sultans who received visions about the Messenger of Allah (may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) in a dream, whether related to his announcements of the conquest of Egypt, or by providing direct rulings to him, and he went beyond what Çelebi narrated about the story of the Mamluki who broke into Salim’s room in Egypt to murder him. The Messenger (may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) came in his shape in the dream of Salim to alert him that he would be killed. This narration is mentioned by Çelebi without criticizing it or even commenting on what was mentioned in it; rather, he presented it as an indisputable fact, and mentioned it as one of the dignities that Salim was singled out for, and much other than what he mentioned in the narration about Salim Al-Awwal. Note that there was only a century between Çelebi and Salim, and these narrations acquired factual status in some sources of Ottoman history, despite the conjecture, fraud, lying and suspicious relationship with the Haroufis.
Among the most abundant narrations in the Ottoman sources is what was narrated about Salim Al-Awwal’s discovery of the tomb of Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi (died: 638 AH / 1240 CE) in Damascus, where it was reported that Ibn Arabi said: “If the Seine entered the Shein, Muhyiddin will appear.” This statement was narrated in more than one formulation, and it was interpreted in the history books as meaning that if Salim entered the Levant, the tomb of Muhyiddin would appear. Of course, this alleged prophecy of Ibn Arabi found a liking among the Ottomans, and it formed for them the conviction that Salim was exposed to his grave in Damascus, and a shrine was built for him, including paraphernalia, in Salhiya.
It is often found that an idea that enjoys the support of the sultans of the Ottoman Empire is rooted in Haroufiyya and its interpretations and esoteria ideologies, as well as other beliefs that have nothing to do with the origins of the Islamic religion or the Sunni doctrine. The narratives indicate that the greatest support for Batinism from the Ottomans was through the Bektashiyya, which was propagated from Batiniyya.

Ibn Arabi

638-560 A.H. / 1240-1165 A.D.

Abu Bakr Muhammad bin Ali bin Arabi Al-Taie, he was born in Murcia in Andalusia, was one of the first people to elaborate on the philosophy of pantheism, and among his views is the unity of the essence of religions and does not differentiate between religions and worships that lead to Allah in any religion. He also has a set of prophecies circulating in Ottoman history, the most prominent of which is that he gave a description of the conqueror of Constantinople, and determined its year, so it is said that Salim built a dome on his grave and made it a shrine in the Levant.

Saad Rostom, The Sects and the Islamic Schools, 3rd Edition (Damascus: Al-Awael for Publishing and Distribution, 2005).

The official "Bektashiyya" of the Ottomans

It sanctioned "polytheism"

in identification with modern Islam

The Bektashiyya gained its importance in the Ottoman Empire from the official character that it adopted from the method of the Janissary army, and it became its official patron, as among the ranks of the Janissaries the sheikhs of the method were living, so that even their chief was interested in the coronation of Agha the Janissary. The Bektashiyya also played a major role in the Islam of the Balkan Christians in its own way, which is a method of suspicious beliefs composed of various groups of folk religion in Anatolia, derived from Shamanism, along with many other beliefs of the peoples of Central Asia and the peoples of the Balkans.
This method has many similarities that raise many questions about its esoteric connections, as its first Sheikh, Omar Haji Baktash, was born in Khurasan. He was sent to Anatolia on a missionary mission promoting Sufi thought influenced by Shi’ism. There was no direct recognition of this method as being influenced by Shi’ism, except that its approved tree contains Yaswy Twelver Shi’ism names. Some historians have considered it a branch of the Yaswy Sufi Shi’ism, although its advocates claim that it was an idea that began with the first of the Rashidun Caliph Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq (may God be pleased with him) and he is innocent of it. It is not based on scientific evidence or true anecdote.

Rituals of Christianity were embraced by the Sultanate's official Sufi method.

Emphasizing the effect of Batinism on the beliefs of many Sufi orders in Anatolia, including the Bektashiyya: The Turkish Muhammad Cobreli describes the Islam of the Bedouin Turks as not pure Sunni Islam like the Islam of city dwellers, but rather a collection of ancient Turkish pagan beliefs, and the beliefs of the Shiite extremists, were popularly simplified, hidden under a Sufi garment. He confirms that the sheikhs of these Sufis practice rituals contrary to Islamic law, and a decadent life is closer to the life of the ancient Turkish elders, and despite the warnings of the dwellers of the cities, and their fight against their school of thought, they were more organized and controlled the spiritual life in the villages and among the Turkish clans. Cuprieli considered the Bektashiyya one of the ways full of heresy and esoteric beliefs.
Moreover, Bernard Lewis asserts that the Bektashiyya – despite its connection with the Janissaries – was maintaining its extremist popular character, which was a source of concern for many scholars in the Ottoman Empire, and so that the Bektashiyya could not fully control the various spectrums of society. The Ottomans tried to support other Sufi orders, most notably the Mevlevi order, whose followers are called the Whirling Dervishes, and they see it as the closest approach to Sunni Islam.

Al- Batiniyy is still present in the Turkish popular memory with its beliefs, visions, and philosophy.

Through a logical analysis of the contradiction between the support of the Ottoman sultans for the Bektashiyya and the esoteric beliefs it passed through, we will notice that they were doing this in order to ensure their control over the Janissary army, which is in complete submission to them. Consequently, any collision between them is considered a direct collision with the Janissaries in the end, and this is what prompted them to support a Sufi method closer to the Sunni sect, to achieve a balance between it and the Bektashiyya closest to the Batin. This official support for the Sufi Mawliyya – which had begun to take on its status and power – was evident at the end of the sixteenth century AD. Based on this support and balance: The Bektashiyya will discover that the Mevlevi has become a strong competitor to it, and it will be an alternative to it before the Sultans in the event of their estrangement with it, but its strength continued with the survival of the Janissaries that did not believe or proclaim loyalty to anybody other than their Bektashiyya elders.
Nonetheless, no matter what the hidden struggle between power and the Bektashiyya remains; however, the sultans’ policy had the character of softness and appeasement, seeking to support it, although – according to Turki Inalçık – it had beliefs and rituals that did not fundamentally differ from what the Shiite Qizilbash movement promoted, and it did not insist on performing religious rituals such as prayer and fasting, and it did not prohibit drinking wine. This made it more attractive to the Christians by virtue of the fact that it does not contradict their beliefs much in its strange way of understanding the religion and its rituals, in addition to the presence of the trinity in its belief represented by God, Muhammad (may the peace and blessings of God be upon him), and Ali (may God be pleased with him), and the rites of confession of sins to their elders. The Qur’anic text has four meanings: the appearance of the text for the common people, the deep meaning of the text for the wise people, the hidden meaning of the text for the saints, and the true meaning of the text for the prophets.
The Christian influence in the Baktashiyya faith deepened through Palm Sultan (922-880 AH / 1516-1475 AD), who was said to be one of the descendants of Haji Baktash, and his fame increased after Bayazid II brought him to the Bektashiyya Tekke in the year 906 AH / 1501 CE, and because he was born to a Christian mother he was able to make an impact on the doctrine of the Tariqa, masking it with the rituals of Christianity, and developing the concept of monasticism in the Dervishes after having added its own rituals to it.
Therefore, many Turkish historians assert that Islam in the Ottoman Empire was characterized by two contradictory forms: heretical and rational, and even what was seen as rational, it suffered several problems by virtue of the Sufi orders that believed in some of what contradicts the pure principles of religion in the Sunni doctrine, and the two forms are both – heretical and rational. They were characterized by Sufism and many beliefs mixed with them in a relative way from one method to another.
The Bektashiyya maintained its power, influence, and control in the Ottoman Empire until the reign of Sultan Mahmud II, who struck it in the death of his abolition of the Janissaries and its military organization in 1241 AH / 1826 AD. Consequently, its tidings were closed as soon as they were eliminated, and Mahmud II did not hesitate to crucify his elders who were freed from religion and the most heretical in front of people. Therefore, the method ended as an organization and strength, but it remained in the memory of the Turkish people, present with many of its beliefs, visions, and philosophy.
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Through the Political Sufism

Ottoman "Darkness"

Lasted Centuries of History

One cannot pursue the intellectual life in Anatolia – before, during and after the Ottoman State – and pose religion question or thought without linking them to the belief of Sufism. So no matter how many feel about the Sufism of the Ottoman State and its Sultans, this matter remains as a historically proven fact. This is if we discuss Sufism in its Sunni context that does not spared from an aberrant and anomaly intellectual by a lot of people belonging to it. Thus, it must be emphasized that it is clearly incompatible with Sunni Islam.
Since Osman the founder, Ottomans found themselves in the arms of Sufis. That is because of the culture of tikkiye was where Othman was raised by his Sheikh and his wife’s father, Edde Bali al-Kirmani (726 – 644 AH / 1326 – 1246 AD). That Sheikh who was a follower of the Tariqah, i. e. way of Sufi Wafaeiya. At the same time, he was presiding over the organization of Al Ikhwa, i. e. fraternity in Anatolia, and it was called Akhia, i. e. brotherhood that was founded on the recommendations of El Hadji Baktash.
From Osman until the end of the Ottoman State, Sultans were associated with Sufism and its Tariqahs, i. e. ways. They received logistical support from Sufi Tariqahs, and in return the Sufis received official confessions, support and assistance to enable them wide spread. The Sultans’ associations with several Sufi Tariqahs passed through different phases. At every stage and with each Sultan, while one Tariqah dominated, the other Tariqahs were undermined, and so on. So sometimes the Ottoman State stood in the face of some of the Sufi Tariqahs was about to rebound against it and cause it to fall, in particular the revolution during the reign of Bayezid Yıldırım in 819 AH / 1416 AD; during the reign of Selim after the Mahdia revolution in 925 AH / 1519 AD; and during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent in the year 933 AH / 1527 AD. These revolutions were followed and preceded by a series of Sufi revolutions throughout the history of the Ottoman State.
In order to understand the cause of these revolutions, despite the support of the Sultans and their association with the Sufism, we must know that Sufism contains different, contradictory and sometimes inconsistent Tariqahs, yet at the same time, they believe – even at their best circumstances – in ideas and visions that run counter to the religious serenity of Islam, due to their different philosophies.

Each Sultan has his own aberrant spiritual inclination.

The rivalry of the Sufi Tariqahs for power formed and fueled their revolutions. Therefore, the Sufi Tariqah that succeeded in gaining the support of the Sultan and the Ottoman court, it found that the power gained from this situation as a reason and justification to counter other competitors. Thus, revolutions can be seen as an episode of intellectual conflict among the Sufis. The State was attracted and interacted with its closest one during the period of its revolution. In so doing, it naturally became an enemy of the remaining Tariqahs.
So we should not wonder when we find selectivity by Sultans in their proximity to different, sometimes contradictory and conflicting Sufi Tariqahs. For instance, Murad I (762 791 – AH / 1389-1361 AD) was associated with and influenced by Jalal al-Din Rumi. Thus, it was known that he had ordered a hat to be sewn from clothes that were said to be belong to Rumi. It was sewed with golden threads and made a crown for him. Bayezid I (804 – 791 AH / 1402 – 1389 AD) was associated with the Zinnia Tariqah which was dominant during his era. Murad II (855 – 824 AH / 1451-1421 AD), whose era coincided with the spread of Mawaliyah and Permian Tariqahs. He exempted their derwishes from tax in support of their wide spread. Suleiman the Magnificent (973 – 926 AH / 1566 – 1520 AD) was explicitly affiliated with Al-Mawaliyah, he also received a leverage from the Naqshbandi and a prestige from Khulutiyyah. Hence, we find that he was closely related in more than one Tariqah. However, it was said that Mustafa I (1032 – 1026 AH / 1623 – 1617 AD) had joined the derwish according to the Khulutiyyah Tariqah, and he was called Al-Wali, i. e. the saint. As for Othman I (1170 – 1167 AH / 1757 – 1754 AD) who his strong association with the music-hating Sufis led him to expel the musicians Sufis, Despite the association of his predecessors Sultans with them. As for Mustafa III (1188 – 1170 AH / 1774- 1757 AD) was affiliated with Al Jarahiah Tariqah, which Mahmoud II also joined it and was attending the meetings of Mawaliyah. As well as Muhammad Rashad V (1336 – 1327 AH / 1918 – 1909 AD) was also affiliated with the Mawaliyah, and participated in the opening ceremony of one of its Tikiyyes during his reign.
The fact that the Sultans belong to a Tariqah was not mean that they are not associated with others. Because the Sufi Tariqahs were an important part of the power of the Ottoman State and they were some strong popular supporters of it among its subjects. Especially in Anatolia and among the Muslims of the Ottoman regions in Europe.
The benefit was mutual between the Sultans and the Sheikhs and followers of the Sufi Tariqahs. In return for the support that the Sultans received from the Sheikhs of Tariqahs, the Sheikhs enjoyed a high social status and a strong political influence in court. The greater influence the Sheikhs had, the more followers and supporters from several segments of society would they have. On the one hand, the cycle of benefits was thus linked to each other among Sultans, Sheikhs, and the members of society; and on the other hand, the support and social status. This was what made Sufism strongly present in Ottoman history.

Jalal al-Din al-Rumi

672 - 604 AH / 1273 - 1207 AD
Mohammed bin Mohammed bin Hussein Al-Balkhi, he was called Jalal al-Din Rumi, the Mawlawyia Tariqah was attributed to him. He was known for his poetry and he had written many books, the most known of them was Masnawi. He had views supporting existentialism; some called them Rumi's ideas of existentialism.

Mustafa Ghaleb, Jalal al-Din al-Rumi (Beirut: The Ezzedine Foundation, 1982).

Zinnia Tariqah

It was one of the influential Sufi Tariqahs during one of the intermediate periods of Ottoman history in Anatolia. It was Founded by Zain Al-Din Al-Khawafi (died: 838 AH / 1435 AD), born in Khurasan, and he wrote a number of books, most notably: The Message of the Divine Commandments, the Zennia Wirds, the approach of Rashad, i. e. the right way.

Ronnie Ellie Alpha, Encyclopedia of Philosophers (Beirut: Dar al Kotob al ilmiyah, 1991).

Permian Tariqah

It was one of the Sufi Tariqahs that appeared in Anatolia during the period of general unrest in 804 AH / 1402 AD, while Tamerlane invaded and overthrow the Ottomans for a period of time. It was founded by Haji Bayram (died: 833 AH / 1430 AD) near Ankara. As during he was calling for his Tariqah, the state questioned him. Therefore, he was asked to appear before Murad II, who pardoned him after he reassured that his call and his Tariqah. As well as some of Perm's students were exempted from taxes by Murad II to help him expanding the Tariqah. His followers were divided into two groups: The first one preserved Sunni Islam through Sufism, and among the Sheikhs of this group was Aqa Shams al-Din, the professor of Muhammad al-Fatih and his closest Sheikh, and the second group radicalized its views that were closest to Shiism and unity of existence.

Khalil Inalcik, History of the Ottoman State (Beirut: Dar al-Madar al-Islami, 2002).

Naqshbandi Tariqah

It came out of Central Asia and moved to Anatolia in the late fifteenth Georgian century. It is affiliated with Muhammad Bahaa al-Din Naqshband. It entered into Anatolia in two times, first one was through one of Bukhara Sheikhs, and then the second one according to the radical Indian Tariqah. It is one of the closest Sufi Tariqahs to the beliefs of Ahlu Sunna Wal Jama'a, i. e. the Sunnis; since its followers are among the most devoted Sufis to preserve the religious duties of prayer and fasting, unlike some other Sufi Tariqahs.

Bernard Lewis, Istanbul and the Islamic Caliphate Civilization, translated by: Sayed Radwan, 2nd edition (Riyadh: Saudi Publishing House, 1982).

Khuluthiyya Tariqah

It was founded by Akhiy Youssef Al-khuluthi in the late thirteenth Georgian century. It was one of the Tariqahs that were preserving the appearances of Sunnis, like some other Tariqahs.

Muhammad Cobrieli, the Establishment of the Ottoman State, translated by: Ahmed Al-Saeed (Cairo: Dar AlKatib Al Arabi, 1967).

Al-Jarrahia Tariqah

It was called Helvetia, and It was said that it branched off from khuluthiyya Tariqah. It was founded by Nur al-Din al-Jarahi (1133 - 1089 AH / 1721 - 1678 AD) in Anatolia, in addition to that it is one of the most widespread Sufi Tariqahs in the West Counties.

Aziz Idrissi, Sufism in the United States of America (Beirut: Dar al Kotob al ilmiyah, 2013).

Based on evidence of Sultan support, it is difficult to discuss Ottoman history independently of Sufi belief in its intellectual aspects. as Sufism constituted a major part for many of the pagan and esoteric beliefs that were embraced by the Turks. Sufism received indirect support from the Sultans, whether with their knowledge and awareness or due to their ignorance and lack of understanding of the aberrant ideas, which was found and established among the Turks with the support of the State.
Some people might think that the Sufi and esoteric thought of the Ottoman State is an intimidation marred by some falsification of history; they argue that matters are relative, and sometimes they may not amount to what some sources and references classify them as ideas, rituals and irrational superstition in the Turkish popular Islam. But either way, we will find that the Ottoman State – whether it was knowing that or not – had suffered from a serious intellectual malaise. This is because of the contradiction among its stages and periods were about ideas that were supported and then were fought; and methods that were dominant and others came to replace them afterwards. Sufi thought was wide spread in its various Tariqahs. All confirm and highlight the malaise and confusion that prevailed at that time.
While the Bektashia Tariqah dominated during a long period in the history of the Ottoman State, its situation was strong for a long time and it was able to adopt ideas that misrepresented and offended some Islamic symbols such as Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq, may God be pleased with him, with the intention of passing the esoteric effect as its first start. This situation demonstrates and proves those malaise and confusion; and it makes the State balance without a scale for the intellectual aspects, considering the lack of clarity. That is why we sometimes wonder about some of the behavior of Sultans and men of court because they sometimes resort to the Sheikhs of the Tariqahs and bring them closer to the court; furthermore, the Sheikhdom of Islam headed by some Sufis, those who sometimes claim that their ability to legislate is a gift that was given to them for a vision that they saw whether of dream or real.

By deception, they invoked Islamic symbols to justify their deviations.

To summarize: Sufi thought in that form that we studied in the Ottoman State supports that, based on its delusions and its daring to interpret, explicitly and implicitly. Not to mention the aberrant philosophies that many of these Tariqahs believe in.