The official "Bektashiyya" of the Ottomans
It sanctioned "polytheism"
in identification with modern Islam
Rituals of Christianity were embraced by the Sultanate's official Sufi method.
Al- Batiniyy is still present in the Turkish popular memory with its beliefs, visions, and philosophy.
1) Ihsanoglu et al., The Ottoman Empire, History and Civilization, translation: Salih Saadawi (Istanbul: IRCICA, 1999).
2) Badiaa Abdel-Aal, The Esoteric Thought in Anatolia (Cairo: The Cultural House, 2010).
3) Bernard Lewis, Istanbul and the Civilization of the Islamic Caliphate, translated by: Sayed Radwan, 2nd Edition (Riyadh: Saudi Publishing House, 1982).
4) Khalil Inalcik, History of the Ottoman Empire (Beirut: Dar al-Madar al-Islami, 2002).
5) Muhammad Cobrieli, The rise of the Ottoman Empire, translated by Ahmad Al-Saeed (Cairo: Dar Al-Kateb Al-Arabi, 1967).