The Ottoman authority among its leaders and the people in Algeria
The Ottoman rule in Algeria is characterized by the phenomenon of subjugation to the sultan and administrative instability, due to the nature of the system that was allocated to rule it.
Their authority diversified according to the course of events and conditions. We find that chaos pervaded the Arab African states, which were called “ocak of Al-Maghreb”. This was due to the military units and the policy of the Ottoman Empire, which was deliberately managing the areas under its control with the same approach, which was to appoint the pashas and support them with the Janissaries, provided that the appointment period was variable, which made the imbalance exist all the time. This policy was certainly a cause for the tyranny of the pashas and their attempt to collect money, knowing that they would not stay in the position for long.
Historians recorded the atrocities of the Turks as an indictment exposing their black colonial history. According to what historical sources say about the era of the Ottomans in Algeria, Tunisia and Tripoli in the West, they separated them independently and divided them. Each of them had a general prince “kurcu başı” who was linked directly to Istanbul.
Among the events that confirm the complicity of the pashas in agreements with sea pirates is what happened in 1001 AH / 1592 AD. Shaaban Pasha was getting one-fifth of what the pirates earned, and this angered the Janissaries, but it went beyond that when the Pasha concluded an agreement with the pirates with the blessing of the Ottomans. He became a naval partner and the power gave him the greatest share as a commander. Rebellions and revolutions spread, and insurrection movements increased. This was characteristic of that historical era between the three states (ocak), and the conflict was increasing and receding according to the course of events and interests, with volatile relations from the Ottomans only to take care of their economic conditions only.
An example of the power of oppression in Algeria and the concern for material interests was only when some French ships were attacked by pirates. This news reached the Sultan in Istanbul after the French king communicated with them, so he commissioned Suleiman Pasha, the general Prince of Algeria, to take it back from the pirates. He sent six hundred coins to compensate France for their losses, but the pirates robbed them, and the Sultan was angered by not obeying his orders. The punishment for this was that the Ottoman Sultan “Ahmed I” issued an order to Mustafa Pasha to execute Khader Pasha. The Pasha went to Tunisia, and from there to Algeria, and Khader Pasha was arrested, strangled to death, then he confiscated his money and returned it to the state treasury in Istanbul.
The events in those five years from 1031 AH / 1621 AD to 1036 AH / 1626 AD, including the period of Mustafa Pasha, are considered a dark and difficult period for Algeria and the rest of the states “ocak”. This is because they used violence against the tribes and the people in general and obliged them to pay taxes. They also deepened the Turkish regime after it had almost vanished.
In 1037 AH / 1627 AD, a dispute arose between the Pasha of Algeria and Tunisia under the pretext that the Tunisians were inciting the tribes in Constantine to revolt and rebel. The matter reached the Sublime Porte, but the Sultan did nothing because of his knowledge and conviction that intervention was futile, as the tribal power was stronger. They were interested in wars in another place, which is the Crimea, in order to compensate some of their losses. As usual, they let the people face the effects of the confrontations.
The war of the ruling authority, its Pashas, and its sea pirates cost the people of Algeria a lot because of injustice and tyranny.