Through the Political Sufism
Lasted Centuries of History
Each Sultan has his own aberrant spiritual inclination.
By deception, they invoked Islamic symbols to justify their deviations.
1) Ahmed Shemshergl, History of Bani Othman, translated by: Mahtab Muhammad (Abu Dhabi: Thaqafa for Publishing and Distribution, 2016).
2) Bernard Lewis, Istanbul and the Islamic Caliphate Civilization, translated by: Sayed Radwan, 2nd edition (Riyadh: Saudi Publishing House, 1982).
3) Hanan El-Maabadi, Sufism and its Effects in Turkey during the Ottoman Era – Presentation and criticism (PhD thesis, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah Al-Mukarramah, 1429 AH).
4) Mustafa Armgan, The Secret History of the Ottoman Empire, translated by: Mustafa Hamza (Beirut: Arab Science House Publishers, 2014).