With Tambourine and Dancing
The Ottoman Dogmatism:
This who has no Sheikh to follow, his Sheikh will be “Satan”
“Sufism” was the under the Sultanic will.... And the Sultans supported its mysticism.
The Ottoman “dervish” believed that it came to complete the spiritual aspect of Islam.
1) Ihsanoglu, and a group of authors, The Ottoman Empire, History and Civilization, translated by: Salih Saadawi (Istanbul: IRCICA, 1999).
2) Bernard Lewis, Istanbul and the Islamic Caliphate Civilization, translated by: Sayed Radwan, 2nd Edition (Riyadh: Saudi Publishing House, 1982).
3) Khalil Inalcik, History of the Ottoman Empire (Beirut: Dar al-Madar al-Islami, 2002).
4) Donald Kotrat, The Ottoman Empire 1922-1700, translated by Ayman Al-Armanazi (Riyadh: Al-Obeikan Library, 2004).
5) Abd al-Fattah Abu Aliya, the Ottoman Empire and the Great Arab World (Riyadh: Dar Al-Marikh, 2008).
6. Muhammad Harb, Sultan Abdul Hamid II (Damascus: Dar Al-Qalam, 1990 AD).
7) Muhammad Cobrieli, “The rise of the Ottoman Empire”, translated by Ahmad Al-Saeed (Cairo: Dar Al-Kateb Al-Arabi, 1967).
8) Muhammad Nasr Muhanna, Islam in Asia since the Mongolian Invasion (Modern University Office, 1990 AD).